ACCEPTANCE TESTING, CALIBRATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF RADIOTHERAPHY EQUIPMENT

  • Aina Ashyiqin Gapor Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Nurzafirah Mohamad Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Masyitah Hasan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Siti Amira Othman, Dr. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Keywords: radiotherapy, X-ray machines, radiation treatment

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy therapy is a form of treatment for cancer that employs high-energy beams to destroy cancer cells. Radiation treatment is most generally utilized with X-rays; however, protons or other radiation types can also be used. The most typical radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer is external beam radiation therapy. A machine that transmits a radiation beam through the skin to a targeted area of the body, commonly a tumor. Therefore, in order for a radiotherapy machine to fully functional and safe to use, some acceptance testing should be done by the manufacturer and medical physicist. This review discussed the a) safety checks, b) mechanical checks, and c) dosimetry measurement to be done in order to ensure the radiotherapy equipment are operating in a manner suited to real-world circumstances and usage. The calibration of the X-ray machines is essential to maintain precision consistency for measuring machines by referring to the reference calibrating apparatus and then adjusting as appropriate. The key benefit of calibration is that it preserves measurement precision, consistency and repetition providing reliable standards and results. WHO has released a number of technical publications on the evaluation, selection, and management of healthcare technology; however, there is currently no guidelines on decommissioning medical devices and no systematic review of the implications of decommissioning on the economy, the environment, and people's health until now. The elimination of inequalities in access to medical devices presents a difficult problem since it calls for an analysis of the regulatory, technological, management, and procurement structures in place.

ABSTRAK

Terapi radioterapi adalah satu bentuk rawatan untuk kanser yang menggunakan pancaran tenaga tinggi untuk memusnahkan sel-sel kanser. Rawatan sinaran biasanya digunakan dengan sinar-X, namun proton atau jenis sinaran lain juga boleh digunakan. Terapi sinaran yang paling tipikal untuk rawatan kanser ialah terapi sinaran pancaran luaran. Mesin yang menghantar pancaran sinaran melalui kulit ke kawasan sasaran badan, biasanya tumor. Oleh itu, untuk membolehkan mesin radioterapi berfungsi sepenuhnya dan selamat digunakan, beberapa ujian penerimaan harus dilakukan oleh pengilang dan ahli fizik perubatan. Semakan ini membincangkan a) pemeriksaan keselamatan, b) pemeriksaan mekanikal, dan c) pengukuran dosimetri yang perlu dilakukan untuk memastikan peralatan radioterapi beroperasi dalam cara yang sesuai dengan keadaan dan penggunaan dunia sebenar. Penentukuran mesin X-ray adalah penting untuk mengekalkan ketekalan ketekalan bagi mesin pengukur dengan merujuk kepada radas penentukuran rujukan dan kemudian melaraskan mengikut kesesuaian. Faedah utama penentukuran ialah ia mengekalkan ketepatan pengukuran, ketekalan dan pengulangan memberikan piawaian dan keputusan yang boleh dipercayai. WHO telah mengeluarkan beberapa penerbitan teknikal mengenai penilaian, pemilihan, dan pengurusan teknologi penjagaan kesihatan; namun, pada masa ini tiada garis panduan mengenai penyahtauliahan peranti perubatan dan tiada kajian sistematik tentang implikasi penyahtauliahan terhadap ekonomi, alam sekitar dan kesihatan rakyat sehingga kini. Penghapusan ketidaksamaan dalam akses kepada peranti perubatan menimbulkan masalah yang sukar kerana ia memerlukan analisis struktur pengawalseliaan, teknologi, pengurusan dan perolehan yang sedia ada.

Author Biographies

Aina Ashyiqin Gapor, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 84600, Pagoh, Johor

Nurzafirah Mohamad, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 84600, Pagoh, Johor

Masyitah Hasan, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 84600, Pagoh, Johor

Siti Amira Othman, Dr., Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 84600, Pagoh, Johor

Published
2023-12-31
How to Cite
Gapor, A. A., Mohamad, N., Hasan, M., & Othman, S. A. (2023). ACCEPTANCE TESTING, CALIBRATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF RADIOTHERAPHY EQUIPMENT. JOURNAL of NUCLEAR and Related TECHNOLOGIES, 20(02), 54-64. Retrieved from http://jnrtmns.net/index.php/jnrt/article/view/242
Section
Articles